Implementation of Inclusive Education: A Systematic Review of Studies of Inclusive Education Interventions in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

Peer-reviewed article
(2022 Jul) International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 1-18


Mendoza, Melissa, and Jody Heymann.


This review focuses on answering the research question: What can we learn from studies of interventions to address the implementation of inclusive education of students with disabilities in low- and lower middle-income countries? A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies focused on interventions aiming to improve inclusive education in low- and lower-middle-income countries. The searches returned 1,266 studies for a title and abstract review. Only 31 studies evaluated interventions and included 20 or more respondents. Published between 2000 and 2019, these studies estimate the impact of a number of approaches that can be used to increase support for students with disabilities in general education settings including teacher trainings, improving facilities and educational materials, and forming partnerships within the community. Covering 19 of 84 low- and lower-middle-income countries, this systematic review underscores the limited amount of work on this critical topic and the need for further research.