Interventions provided by parents for children with intellectual disabilities in low and middle income countries.

Peer-reviewed article
(2012 Mar) J Appl Res Intellect Disabil, 25 135-42


Einfeld SL, Stancliffe RJ, Gray KM, Sofronoff K, Rice L, Emerson E, Yasamy MT



In low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries, there is a lack of well-trained therapists to provide specialist interventions for children with intellectual disabilities and their families. We sought to identify strategies deliverable by families or non-specialist workers.


After searches of appropriate scientific databases, we applied GRADE methodology to rate the quality of evidence for these interventions.


We identified small-scale interventions trialled in LAMI countries with limited evidence of effectiveness in supporting development, adaptive behaviour and/or community participation. In high-income countries, the Stepping Stones Triple P program for adaptive behaviour and the Portage program for child development have the most extensive evidence base and may be applicable in LAMI countries.


There is reason to hope that, when combined with community development strategies, the welfare of children with intellectual disabilities in LAMI countries can be advanced within those countries' economic means.